Please Wait...

BAFF // B Cell Activating Factor

Biomarker Therapeutic Areas: 
Biomarker Matrices: 

B-cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a member of the TNF family and induces B cell proliferation and differentiation. The soluble form of BAFF is a 152aa with a single disulfide bond (Moore et al., 1999).

This cytokine is also called tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13b (TNFSF13b), B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) and TNF- and APOL-related leukocyte expressed ligand (TALL-1) among other names.

BAFF binds to 3 receptors: TACI, BCMA and BAFF-R/BR-3. The third one binds only BAFF but the two others also bind APRIL (A PRoliferation Inducing Ligand from the TNF family ligand)(Wei et al.2015). BAFF is one of the major factors implicated in the maturation and survival of B cells (Cancro, 2004). Mice overexpressing BAFF develop autoimmune manifestations (autoantibodies, germinal center formation…)(Mackay et al., 1999). Elevated BAFF levels are found in patient with several autoimmune diseases (Fabris et al., 2010; Moura et al., 2011; Toubi et al., 2006)

BAFF levels have also been found to decrease in Sjögren’s syndrome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis under different therapeutics (Glaesener et al., 2014; Pollard et al., 2013; St Clair et al., 2013)


BAFF assay is a solid phase enzyme linked immunoassay which has been validated in the laboratory for measurement in human serum.


Cancro, M.P. (2004). The BLyS family of ligands and receptors: an archetype for niche-specific homeostatic regulation. Immunol. Rev. 202, 237–249.

Fabris, M., Grimaldi, F., Villalta, D., Picierno, A., Fabro, C., Bolzan, M., De Vita, S., and Tonutti, E. (2010). BLyS and April serum levels in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Autoimmun. Rev. 9, 165–169.

Glaesener, S., Quách, T.D., Onken, N., Weller-Heinemann, F., Dressler, F., Huppertz, H.-I., Thon, A., and Meyer-Bahlburg, A. (2014). Distinct Effects of Methotrexate and Etanercept on the B Cell Compartment in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. Hoboken Nj 66, 2590–2600.

Mackay, F., Woodcock, S.A., Lawton, P., Ambrose, C., Baetscher, M., Schneider, P., Tschopp, J., and Browning, J.L. (1999). Mice Transgenic for Baff Develop Lymphocytic Disorders along with Autoimmune Manifestations. J. Exp. Med. 190, 1697–1710.

Moore, P.A., Belvedere, O., Orr, A., Pieri, K., LaFleur, D.W., Feng, P., Soppet, D., Charters, M., Gentz, R., Parmelee, D., et al. (1999). BLyS: Member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family and B Lymphocyte Stimulator. Science 285, 260–263.

Moura, R.A., Cascao, R., Perpetuo, I., Canhao, H., Vieira-Sousa, E., Mourao, A.F., Rodrigues, A.M., Polido-Pereira, J., Queiroz, M.V., Rosario, H.S., et al. (2011). Cytokine pattern in very early rheumatoid arthritis favours B-cell activation and survival. Rheumatology 50, 278–282.

Pollard, R.P.E., Abdulahad, W.H., Vissink, A., Hamza, N., Burgerhof, J.G.M., Meijer, J.M., Visser, A., Huitema, M.G., Spijkervet, F.K.L., Kallenberg, C.G.M., et al. (2013). Serum levels of BAFF, but not APRIL, are increased after rituximab treatment in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome: data from a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 72, 146–148.

St Clair, E.W., Levesque, M.C., Luning Prak, E.T., Vivino, F.B., Alappatt, C.J., Spychala, M.E., Wedgwood, J., McNamara, J., Moser Sivils, K.L., Fisher, L., et al. (2013a). Rituximab Therapy for Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: An Open-Label Clinical Trial and Mechanistic Analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 65, 1097–1106.

Toubi, E., Gordon, S., Kessel, A., Rosner, I., Rozenbaum, M., Shoenfeld, Y., and Zuckerman, E. (2006). Elevated serum B-Lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Association with autoimmunity. J. Autoimmun. 27, 134–139.

Wei, F., Chang, Y., and Wei, W.(2015) The role of BAFF in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine.


Biomarker Menu

Download MENU

Molecular Marker Laboratory Services

Download Brochure

Alzheimer's Disease Biomarker Lab Expertise

Download Info Sheet

Leader in Clinical Trial
Management Solutions

Successful clinical trials require the ability to see key details and uncover hidden insights. Bioclinica utilizes science and technology to bring clarity to clinical trials, helping companies to develop new life-improving therapies more efficiently and safely.

Bioclinica Delivers Individual Case Safety Report (ICSR) Processing w Quality & Consistency While Crossing One Mil…
bioclinica (Yesterday)
Who made the BioSpace list of 11 most innovative life sciences companies in the world? Ck it out here via @biospace…
bioclinica (Yesterday)
BREAKING: With a passion for Drug Safety, we’re delighted to share @bioclinica #pharmacovigilance crossed 1M ICSR c…
bioclinica (2 days ago)
RT @isciencebox: Draft and Final FDA Guidances Detail Development of New Drugs for Neurological Disorders @RAPSorg
bioclinica (2 days ago)
RT @RAPSorg: Final @US_FDA Rule Requires Medical Device Trials Outside US to Conform to GCP | #Regulatory Focus #FD…
bioclinica (2 days ago)
Congrats @bioclinica on @Clin_Info_News Best Practices Award 4 "Transformational Med. Imaging in #ClinicalTrials. '…
bioclinica (1 week ago)

Latest Blogs:

Latin America: Benefit from the Right Partner
Removing Risk from Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) Implementations
Collaboration Between Clinical Operations and the Logistics and Supply Chain Teams is Key to Trial Success
The Value of Protocol Review
CTMS and RBM: Hot Topics at OCT Nordics in Copenhagen