CXCL13 (also known as BCA-1 or BLC) is a 10.46kDa protein of 88 residues. Its receptor, CXCR5, is expressed by TFH cells in the follicle (TFH outside the follicle do not express CXCR5). For example, CXCR5 is expressed in the TFH cells which help B cells to differentiate in long lived plasma cells (Tangye et al., 2013).
Blocking the internalization of CXCR5 in mouse, with an anti-CXCL13 antibody, results in impairment of B cell homing in secondary lymphoid organ. It also attenuates symptoms in a model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (Klimatcheva et al., 2015).
Elevated levels of CXCL13 in serum are detected in several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjörgren’s syndrome and for neuroinflammation (Alvarez et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2014; Kowarik et al., 2012; Nocturne et al., 2015).
CXCL13 assay is a solid phase enzyme linked immunoassay which has been validated in the laboratory for measurement in human serum.
Alvarez, E., Piccio, L., Mikesell, R.J., Klawiter, E.C., Parks, B.J., Naismith, R.T., and Cross, A.H. (2013). CXCL13 is a Biomarker of Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica, and Other Neurological Conditions. Mult. Scler. Houndmills Basingstoke Engl. 19, 1204–1208.
Jones, J.D., Hamilton, B.J., Challener, G.J., de Brum-Fernandes, A.J., Cossette, P., Liang, P., Masetto, A., Ménard, H.A., Carrier, N., Boyle, D.L., et al. (2014). Serum C-X-C motif chemokine 13 is elevated in early and established rheumatoid arthritis and correlates with rheumatoid factor levels. Arthritis Res. Ther. 16, R103.
Klimatcheva, E., Pandina, T., Reilly, C., Torno, S., Bussler, H., Scrivens, M., Jonason, A., Mallow, C., Doherty, M., Paris, M., et al. (2015). CXCL13 antibody for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. BMC Immunol. 16, 6.
Kowarik, M.C., Cepok, S., Sellner, J., Grummel, V., Weber, M.S., Korn, T., Berthele, A., and Hemmer, B. (2012). CXCL13 is the major determinant for B cell recruitment to the CSF during neuroinflammation. J. Neuroinflammation 9, 93.
Nocturne, G., Seror, R., Fogel, O., Belkhir, R., Boudaoud, S., Saraux, A., Larroche, C., Le Guern, V., Gottenberg, J.E., and Mariette, X. (2015). CXCL13 and CCL11 serum levels and lymphoma and disease activity in primary Sjögren Syndrome: CXCL13, CCL11 and disease activity in pSS. Arthritis Rheumatol. n/a – n/a.
Tangye, S.G., Ma, C.S., Brink, R., and Deenick, E.K. (2013). The good, the bad and the ugly — TFH cells in human health and disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 13, 412–426.